Data science is a rapidly evolving field with a wide range of algorithms and techniques. While many popular algorithms like linear regression, decision trees, and deep learning models receive significant attention, there are several lesser-known algorithms that can be quite powerful in specific contexts. Here are some relatively obscure data science algorithms that are worth exploring:

- Genetic Algorithms: Genetic algorithms are optimization algorithms inspired by the process of natural selection. They are used to solve complex optimization and search problems and are particularly useful in feature selection, hyperparameter tuning, and evolving neural network architectures.
- Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO): PSO is another optimization technique inspired by the social behavior of birds and fish. It is often used for continuous optimization problems and can be applied to various machine learning tasks, such as feature selection and neural network training.
- Isolation Forest: Anomaly detection is a critical task in data science, and the Isolation Forest algorithm is a relatively simple yet effective approach for detecting outliers in high-dimensional data. It builds an ensemble of isolation trees to identify anomalies.
- Bayesian Optimization: Bayesian optimization is a sequential model-based optimization technique that is used for optimizing expensive, black-box functions. It is commonly employed in hyperparameter tuning for machine learning models.
- Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs): SOMs are a type of artificial neural network that can be used for unsupervised learning and data visualization. They are particularly useful for clustering and reducing the dimensionality of high-dimensional data while preserving its topological structure.
- Random Kitchen Sinks (RKS): RKS is a method for approximating the feature map of a kernel in a linear time complexity. It can be used to efficiently compute the kernel trick in kernel methods like Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Kernel Ridge Regression.
- Factorization Machines (FMs): FMs are a supervised learning algorithm designed for recommendation systems and predictive modeling tasks. They can capture complex feature interactions efficiently and are used in tasks like click-through rate prediction.
- Cox Proportional Hazards Model: This survival analysis technique is used for modeling the time until an event of interest occurs, often in medical research or reliability analysis. It accounts for censored data and can provide insights into time-to-event relationships.
- Locally Linear Embedding (LLE): LLE is a dimensionality reduction technique that focuses on preserving local relationships in the data. It is useful for nonlinear dimensionality reduction and visualization of high-dimensional data.
- t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE): While t-SNE is not entirely obscure, it’s worth mentioning as a powerful tool for visualizing high-dimensional data in a lower-dimensional space, with an emphasis on preserving local structures. It’s often used for clustering and visualization tasks.

These algorithms may not be as widely recognized as some of the more mainstream techniques, but they can be valuable additions to a data scientist’s toolkit, especially when dealing with specific data types or problem domains. Choosing the right algorithm depends on the nature of your data and the problem you’re trying to solve.